Martinsville Road is a short minor little road that presently runs between Lawndale Drive and Battleground Avenue.
It is named for the community of Martin Ville (also called Martinville and Martinsville), which was itself named for Alexander Martin.
A little history lesson is in order to appreciate the little community of Martinville, and its demise.
A provincial congress had met in HalifaxNC April of 1776 and passed what came to be known as the “Halifax Resolves” which requested of the Continental Congress that it declare independence for all the colonies. Eventually of course such independence was declared and signed on July 4, 1776.
This declaration required that each state have its own official constitution, and so another assembly was called together in NC in October of 1776 for that purpose. After much wrangling a constitution was adopted in December of 1776 and declared to be in force, providing for two legislative branches, an executive branch headed by a governor who would be elected by the legislature, and a judiciary. Robert Caswell was elected by the assembly as the first governor and installed in January of 1777.
During the revolutionary war the state assembly passed laws allowing for the confiscation of property owned by those loyal to the British. Each county had its own confiscation committee, which would arrange for sale of confiscated estates. It was not unusual for the county commissioners themselves to end up buying much of this confiscated property, at greatly reduced rates.
Well, as things happen, the primary loyalist in the piedmont of North Carolina was a man named Edmond Fanning, who had” mysteriously” inherited 350 acres of land in Guilford County from William Churton, former surveyor general for the British, who had himself purchased these 350 acres around 1767 and died shortly thereafter.
There is evidence to suggest that Edmond Fanning, a member of the Royal Governor’s council, knew about plans being made to form Guilford County out of Orange County, and who knew that the Churton land would eventually be at the center of the new county (which consisted of present day Rockingham, Guilford, and Randolph Counties), and the likely placement for the country seat. And so Fanning inherited the property through very strange circumstances.
And then the new county was formed, and yes, the courthouse was placed on one acre of Fanning’s land, purchased through an agent.
Well, after the county was formed, the Martin and Henderson families, related by marriage, seemed to have undue influence, which would benefit Martin soon enough. For who would be more likely to have property confiscated by the county confiscation committee than Edmond Fanning himself, chief Tory loyalist of the piedmont of North Carolina!
So in 1780 Fanning’s 350 acres was sold to who other than the Alexander Martin/Thomas Henderson family!
In 1782 Alexander Martin was elected governor of North Carolina and served two one year terms, after which he retired back to GuilfordCounty. In 1785 the state assembly approved that a town be laid out around the Guilford courthouse area, on land which of course Martin owned. This town was to be named Martin Ville in honor of then former Governor Martin, and would serve as the county seat of GuilfordCounty. And so it was, though the town did not prosper, and was to remain fairly small for the next fifteen years.
At the same assembly meeting in 1785 in which the formation of Martin Ville was approved, RockinghamCounty was created out of the northern tier of then GuilfordCounty. Already in 1779 the southern tier of Guilford had been included in the new county of Randolph. Thus GuilfordCounty came to have its current boundaries.
This change would not bode well for Martin Ville. Whereas Guilford Courthouse had been roughly the geographic center of the older much larger GuilfordCounty, the geographic center of the new county was several miles to the southeast.
It wasn’t long before controversy arose over the location of the county seat. For obvious reason people on the southeastern part of the county, in PleasantGarden as well as in the Buffalo creek communities, desired that the courthouse be more centrally located. Two groups or parties came into being in the county, the “Centre” party wanting relocation to the geographic center of the county, and the “Martinville” party wanting to keep the courthouse just where it was. When the county commissioners, controlled by Martin’s family and the Martinville party voted in 1807 to have a new jail and courthouse built in Martinville, the controversy erupted into full bloom. An election was called to vote on the placement of the new courthouse, with both parties pressing the matter in meetings all over the GuilfordCounty. But the Center party won the vote, and that was the beginning of the end of Martinville, which faded into oblivion over time, as the new county seat was moved to the southeast, and named after the hero of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, Nathaniel Greene. Alexander Martin died shortly after, in 1808. And all that’s left in name of the old road that ran from Martinville to the new community of Greensboro is the short little Martinsville Road we have today.